Abstract

The impact of operation current on the degradation behavior of 310 nm UV LEDs is investigated over 1000 h of stress. It ranges from 50 to 300 mA and corresponds to current densities from 34 to 201  A/cm2. To separate the impact of current from that of temperature, the junction temperature is kept constant by adjusting the heat sink temperature. Higher current was found to strongly accelerate the optical power reduction during operation. A mathematical model for lifetime prediction is introduced. It indicates that lifetime is inversely proportional to the cube of the current density, suggesting the involvement of Auger recombination.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  22. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN laser diodes caused by temperature- and current-driven diffusion processes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 64, 623–626 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Orita, M. Meneghini, H. Ohno, N. Trivellin, N. Ikedo, S. Takigawa, M. Yuri, T. Tanaka, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Analysis of diffusion-related gradual degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1169–1176 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. da Silva and G. I. Wirth, “Logarithmic behavior of the degradation dynamics of metal-oxide–semiconductor devices,” J. Stat. Mech. Theory Exp. 2010, P04025 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Brox, A. Schwerin, Q. Wang, and W. Weber, “A model for the time- and bias-dependence of p-MOSFET degradation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 1184–1196 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  27. Q. Wang, M. Brox, W. H. Krautschneider, and W. Weber, “Explanation and model for the logarithmic time dependence of p-MOSFET degradation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 218–220 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Grasser and B. Kaczer, “Evidence that two tightly coupled mechanisms are responsible for negative bias temperature instability in oxynitride MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1056–1062 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Hu, L. Yang, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “The ageing mechanism of high-power InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes under electrical stresses,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 1249–1252 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. F. Manyakhin, A. Kovalev, and A. E. Yunovich, “Aging mechanisms of InGaN/AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes operating at high currents,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, e53 (1998).
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    [Crossref]
  32. S. M. Myers and A. F. Wright, “Theoretical description of H behavior in GaN p-n junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5612–5622 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2018 (3)

X. Yang, B. Sun, Z. Wang, C. Qian, Y. Ren, D. Yang, and Q. Feng, “An alternative lifetime model for white light emitting diodes under thermal-electrical stresses,” Materials 11, 817 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN laser diodes caused by temperature- and current-driven diffusion processes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 64, 623–626 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Schreiner, J. Martınez-Abaigar, J. Glaab, and M. Jensen, “UV‐B induced secondary plant metabolites,” Opt. Photonik 9, 34–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, D. Steiauf, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 15, 125006 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

H. Nykänen, S. Suihkonen, L. Kilanski, M. Sopanen, and F. Tuomisto, “Low energy electron beam induced vacancy activation in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 122105 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Wang and T. Chu, “Lifetime predictions of LED-based light bars by accelerated degradation test,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52, 1332–1336 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, M. Ling, J. Yang, W. Xiong, W. Jia, and G. Wang, “Efficiency degradation behaviors of current/thermal co-stressed GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with vertical-structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093110 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Orita, M. Meneghini, H. Ohno, N. Trivellin, N. Ikedo, S. Takigawa, M. Yuri, T. Tanaka, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Analysis of diffusion-related gradual degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1169–1176 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

R. da Silva and G. I. Wirth, “Logarithmic behavior of the degradation dynamics of metal-oxide–semiconductor devices,” J. Stat. Mech. Theory Exp. 2010, P04025 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Moe, M. L. Reed, G. A. Garrett, A. V. Sampath, T. Alexander, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, J. Deng, and R. Gaska, “Current-induced degradation of high performance deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213512 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, D. Barbisan, L. Rodighiero, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Analysis of the physical processes responsible for the degradation of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143506 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2  mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

T. Grasser and B. Kaczer, “Evidence that two tightly coupled mechanisms are responsible for negative bias temperature instability in oxynitride MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1056–1062 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Hu, L. Yang, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “The ageing mechanism of high-power InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes under electrical stresses,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 1249–1252 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Z. Gong, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, W. Sun, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “Optical power degradation mechanisms in AlGaN-based 280  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121106 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Endruweit, M. S. Johnson, and A. C. Long, “Curing of composite components by ultraviolet radiation: a review,” Polym. Compos. 27, 119–128 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, and A. V. Govorkov, “Enhanced tunneling in GaN/InGaN multi-quantum-well heterojunction diodes after short-term injection annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5203–5207 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. M. Myers and A. F. Wright, “Theoretical description of H behavior in GaN p-n junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5612–5622 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Krutmann and A. Morita, “Mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA phototherapy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 4, 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

F. Manyakhin, A. Kovalev, and A. E. Yunovich, “Aging mechanisms of InGaN/AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes operating at high currents,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, e53 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Brox, A. Schwerin, Q. Wang, and W. Weber, “A model for the time- and bias-dependence of p-MOSFET degradation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 1184–1196 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Q. Wang, M. Brox, W. H. Krautschneider, and W. Weber, “Explanation and model for the logarithmic time dependence of p-MOSFET degradation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 218–220 (1991).
[Crossref]

Adivarahan, V.

Z. Gong, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, W. Sun, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “Optical power degradation mechanisms in AlGaN-based 280  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alexander, T.

C. G. Moe, M. L. Reed, G. A. Garrett, A. V. Sampath, T. Alexander, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, J. Deng, and R. Gaska, “Current-induced degradation of high performance deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asada, K.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asif Khan, M.

Z. Gong, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, W. Sun, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “Optical power degradation mechanisms in AlGaN-based 280  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barbisan, D.

M. Meneghini, D. Barbisan, L. Rodighiero, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Analysis of the physical processes responsible for the degradation of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

C. G. Moe, M. L. Reed, G. A. Garrett, A. V. Sampath, T. Alexander, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, J. Deng, and R. Gaska, “Current-induced degradation of high performance deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213512 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2  mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brendel, M.

J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brox, M.

M. Brox, A. Schwerin, Q. Wang, and W. Weber, “A model for the time- and bias-dependence of p-MOSFET degradation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 1184–1196 (1994).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, M. Brox, W. H. Krautschneider, and W. Weber, “Explanation and model for the logarithmic time dependence of p-MOSFET degradation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 218–220 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

F. Wang and T. Chu, “Lifetime predictions of LED-based light bars by accelerated degradation test,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52, 1332–1336 (2012).
[Crossref]

da Silva, R.

R. da Silva and G. I. Wirth, “Logarithmic behavior of the degradation dynamics of metal-oxide–semiconductor devices,” J. Stat. Mech. Theory Exp. 2010, P04025 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Santi, C.

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN laser diodes caused by temperature- and current-driven diffusion processes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 64, 623–626 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2  mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Moe, M. L. Reed, G. A. Garrett, A. V. Sampath, T. Alexander, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, J. Deng, and R. Gaska, “Current-induced degradation of high performance deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Edo, M.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Endruweit, A.

A. Endruweit, M. S. Johnson, and A. C. Long, “Curing of composite components by ultraviolet radiation: a review,” Polym. Compos. 27, 119–128 (2006).
[Crossref]

Enslin, J.

J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q.

X. Yang, B. Sun, Z. Wang, C. Qian, Y. Ren, D. Yang, and Q. Feng, “An alternative lifetime model for white light emitting diodes under thermal-electrical stresses,” Materials 11, 817 (2018).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 449–456 (2004).
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A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
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Z. Gong, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, W. Sun, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “Optical power degradation mechanisms in AlGaN-based 280  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121106 (2006).
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C. G. Moe, M. L. Reed, G. A. Garrett, A. V. Sampath, T. Alexander, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, J. Deng, and R. Gaska, “Current-induced degradation of high performance deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213512 (2010).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2  mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102 (2010).
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J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
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J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
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M. Schreiner, J. Martınez-Abaigar, J. Glaab, and M. Jensen, “UV‐B induced secondary plant metabolites,” Opt. Photonik 9, 34–37 (2014).
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Z. Gong, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, W. Sun, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “Optical power degradation mechanisms in AlGaN-based 280  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121106 (2006).
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T. Grasser and B. Kaczer, “Evidence that two tightly coupled mechanisms are responsible for negative bias temperature instability in oxynitride MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1056–1062 (2009).
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N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

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J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
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L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
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Hao, Z.

L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
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J. Hu, L. Yang, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “The ageing mechanism of high-power InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes under electrical stresses,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 1249–1252 (2007).
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Hu, X.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2  mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102 (2010).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
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K. Orita, M. Meneghini, H. Ohno, N. Trivellin, N. Ikedo, S. Takigawa, M. Yuri, T. Tanaka, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Analysis of diffusion-related gradual degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1169–1176 (2012).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
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M. Schreiner, J. Martınez-Abaigar, J. Glaab, and M. Jensen, “UV‐B induced secondary plant metabolites,” Opt. Photonik 9, 34–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jia, W.

L. Liu, M. Ling, J. Yang, W. Xiong, W. Jia, and G. Wang, “Efficiency degradation behaviors of current/thermal co-stressed GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with vertical-structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093110 (2012).
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L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
[Crossref]

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A. Endruweit, M. S. Johnson, and A. C. Long, “Curing of composite components by ultraviolet radiation: a review,” Polym. Compos. 27, 119–128 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. Grasser and B. Kaczer, “Evidence that two tightly coupled mechanisms are responsible for negative bias temperature instability in oxynitride MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1056–1062 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
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J. Hu, L. Yang, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “The ageing mechanism of high-power InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes under electrical stresses,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 1249–1252 (2007).
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J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, K. Kojima, H. Ikeda, K. Fujito, S. Takashima, M. Edo, K. Ueno, and S. Ishibashi, “The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161413 (2018).
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J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
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A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
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F. Manyakhin, A. Kovalev, and A. E. Yunovich, “Aging mechanisms of InGaN/AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes operating at high currents,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, e53 (1998).
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J. Krutmann and A. Morita, “Mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA phototherapy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 4, 70–72 (1999).
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J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
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Kuhn, Ch.

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
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Lapeyrade, M.

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ling, M.

L. Liu, M. Ling, J. Yang, W. Xiong, W. Jia, and G. Wang, “Efficiency degradation behaviors of current/thermal co-stressed GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with vertical-structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. Ling, J. Yang, W. Xiong, W. Jia, and G. Wang, “Efficiency degradation behaviors of current/thermal co-stressed GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with vertical-structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093110 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
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J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
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A. Endruweit, M. S. Johnson, and A. C. Long, “Curing of composite components by ultraviolet radiation: a review,” Polym. Compos. 27, 119–128 (2006).
[Crossref]

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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2  mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
[Crossref]

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F. Manyakhin, A. Kovalev, and A. E. Yunovich, “Aging mechanisms of InGaN/AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes operating at high currents,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, e53 (1998).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martinez-Abaigar, J.

M. Schreiner, J. Martınez-Abaigar, J. Glaab, and M. Jensen, “UV‐B induced secondary plant metabolites,” Opt. Photonik 9, 34–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mehnke, F.

J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. Lobo Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 094504 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
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K. Orita, M. Meneghini, H. Ohno, N. Trivellin, N. Ikedo, S. Takigawa, M. Yuri, T. Tanaka, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Analysis of diffusion-related gradual degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1169–1176 (2012).
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M. Meneghini, D. Barbisan, L. Rodighiero, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Analysis of the physical processes responsible for the degradation of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143506 (2010).
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Meneghini, M.

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN laser diodes caused by temperature- and current-driven diffusion processes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 64, 623–626 (2016).
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K. Orita, M. Meneghini, H. Ohno, N. Trivellin, N. Ikedo, S. Takigawa, M. Yuri, T. Tanaka, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Analysis of diffusion-related gradual degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1169–1176 (2012).
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M. Meneghini, D. Barbisan, L. Rodighiero, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Analysis of the physical processes responsible for the degradation of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143506 (2010).
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Mi, C.

L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
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C. G. Moe, M. L. Reed, G. A. Garrett, A. V. Sampath, T. Alexander, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, J. Deng, and R. Gaska, “Current-induced degradation of high performance deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213512 (2010).
[Crossref]

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J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. Krutmann and A. Morita, “Mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA phototherapy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 4, 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

Muhin, A.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
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N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 449–456 (2004).
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Nykänen, H.

H. Nykänen, S. Suihkonen, L. Kilanski, M. Sopanen, and F. Tuomisto, “Low energy electron beam induced vacancy activation in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 122105 (2012).
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A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
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K. Orita, M. Meneghini, H. Ohno, N. Trivellin, N. Ikedo, S. Takigawa, M. Yuri, T. Tanaka, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Analysis of diffusion-related gradual degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1169–1176 (2012).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
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A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, and A. V. Govorkov, “Enhanced tunneling in GaN/InGaN multi-quantum-well heterojunction diodes after short-term injection annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5203–5207 (2002).
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X. Yang, B. Sun, Z. Wang, C. Qian, Y. Ren, D. Yang, and Q. Feng, “An alternative lifetime model for white light emitting diodes under thermal-electrical stresses,” Materials 11, 817 (2018).
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J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
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J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, Ch. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, Ch. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, Ch. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
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X. Yang, B. Sun, Z. Wang, C. Qian, Y. Ren, D. Yang, and Q. Feng, “An alternative lifetime model for white light emitting diodes under thermal-electrical stresses,” Materials 11, 817 (2018).
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M. Meneghini, D. Barbisan, L. Rodighiero, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Analysis of the physical processes responsible for the degradation of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143506 (2010).
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C. G. Moe, M. L. Reed, G. A. Garrett, A. V. Sampath, T. Alexander, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, J. Deng, and R. Gaska, “Current-induced degradation of high performance deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213512 (2010).
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J. Hu, L. Yang, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “The ageing mechanism of high-power InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes under electrical stresses,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 1249–1252 (2007).
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E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, D. Steiauf, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 15, 125006 (2013).
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L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
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X. Yang, B. Sun, Z. Wang, C. Qian, Y. Ren, D. Yang, and Q. Feng, “An alternative lifetime model for white light emitting diodes under thermal-electrical stresses,” Materials 11, 817 (2018).
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J. Ruschel, J. Glaab, M. Brendel, J. Rass, C. Stölmacker, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Kolbe, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Localization of current-induced degradation effects in (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 084504 (2018).
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M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
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L. Wang, J. Jin, C. Mi, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “A review on experimental measurements for understanding efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Materials 10, 1233 (2017).
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Xiong, W.

L. Liu, M. Ling, J. Yang, W. Xiong, W. Jia, and G. Wang, “Efficiency degradation behaviors of current/thermal co-stressed GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with vertical-structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093110 (2012).
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A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310  nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084005 (2014).
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E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, D. Steiauf, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 15, 125006 (2013).
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X. Yang, B. Sun, Z. Wang, C. Qian, Y. Ren, D. Yang, and Q. Feng, “An alternative lifetime model for white light emitting diodes under thermal-electrical stresses,” Materials 11, 817 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

L. Liu, M. Ling, J. Yang, W. Xiong, W. Jia, and G. Wang, “Efficiency degradation behaviors of current/thermal co-stressed GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with vertical-structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093110 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. Hu, L. Yang, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “The ageing mechanism of high-power InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes under electrical stresses,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 1249–1252 (2007).
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M. Meneghini, D. Barbisan, L. Rodighiero, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Analysis of the physical processes responsible for the degradation of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143506 (2010).
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M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Representative emission spectra of the investigated 310 nm UV LEDs normalized to the emission peak. The spectra were measured at 100 mA at a heat sink temperature of 25°C before aging and after aging experiment 3 (Table 1).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Optical power over time of LEDs run at different current densities. The values are normalized to the initial value and averaged over 15 LEDs. For all currents, the junction temperature was kept at (90±5)°C.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Operation time at which the optical power has reduced to 70% (t70%) of the initial value versus current density.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Mean normalized optical power of the LEDs versus the product of the operation time and the cube of the current density.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Mean normalized optical power (see Fig. 2) versus logarithmic time scale. For different current densities, the characteristic times τ are indicated. Also shown are the logarithmic functions (dashed lines) from Eq. (2) and the extended logarithmic function (solid line) from Eq. (4).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Experimental Conditions Applied to the Investigated 310 nm UV LEDs

Equations (6)

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t70%=C70%·j3.
P(tτ)=β·ln(α·j3·t).
τ=e1/β·α1·j3.
P(t)=β·ln[α·j3·(t+τ)]=β·ln(α·j3·t+e1/β).
RAugerj3,
tP·RAugerCPN,

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